# GAlgebra

Symbolic Geometric Algebra/Calculus package for SymPy.

## Development Status

brombo/galgebra was originally written by Alan Bromborsky, but was no longer actively maintained, and as of 2019-11-25 no longer exists.

pygae/galgebra is a community fork, maintained by Pythonic Geometric Algebra Enthusiasts.

The fork supports Python 3, increases test coverage, sets up CI and linters, maintains releases to PyPI, improves docs and has many bug fixes, see Changelog.

[!NOTE] Readers of Prof. Alan Macdonald’s Linear and Geometric Algebra and Vector and Geometric Calculus, please check out **Migrating guide for readers of LAGA&VAGC** below.

If you are coming from sympy.galgebra or brombo/galgebra, please check out section Migration Guide below.

## Features

### Geometric Algebra

Arbitrary Vector Basis and Metric

Scalar, Vector, Bivector, Multivector, Pseudoscalar, Spinor, Blade

Basic Geometic Algebra Operations

Sum Difference

Geometric Product

Outer and Inner Products

Left and Right Contractions

Reverse, Dual, Exponential

Commutator

Projection, Reflection, Rotation

Reciprocal Frames

Inspecting Base/Blade Representation

Symbolic Manipulations

`expand`

,`factor`

,`simplify`

,`subs`

,`trigsimp`

etc.

Overloaded Python operators for basic GA operations:

### Geometric Calculus

Geometric Derivative

Submanifolds

Linear Transformations

Differential Operators

The various derivatives of a multivector function is accomplished by multiplying the gradient operator vector with the function:

Tip: an example for getting `grad`

and `rgrad`

of a 3-d Euclidean geometric algebra in rectangular coordinates:

```
from sympy import symbols
from galgebra.ga import Ga
o3d = Ga('e', g=[1,1,1], coords=symbols('x,y,z',real=True))
(grad,rgrad) = o3d.grads()
```

### Printing

Enhanced Console Printing

Latex Printing

out-of-the-box support for Jupyter Notebook

PDF generation and croping support if you have

`pdflatex`

/`pdfcrop`

installed

## Getting Started

After installing GAlgebra (see section Installing GAlgebra below), in a Jupyter Notebook:

```
from sympy import symbols
from galgebra.ga import Ga
from galgebra.printer import Format
Format(Fmode = False, Dmode = True)
st4coords = (t,x,y,z) = symbols('t x y z', real=True)
st4 = Ga('e',
g=[1,-1,-1,-1],
coords=st4coords)
M = st4.mv('M','mv',f = True)
M.grade(3).Fmt(3,r'\langle \mathbf{M} \rangle _3')
```

You will see:

You may also check out more examples here.

For detailed documentation, please visit https://galgebra.readthedocs.io/ .

## Installing GAlgebra

### Prerequisites

Works on Linux, Windows, Mac OSX

Python >= 3.8

0.5.0 was the last supported release for Python 3.5-3.7

0.4.x was the last supported release series for Python 2.7

SymPy >= 1.3

Only SymPy 1.12 is tested via CI, see

`.github/workflows/ci.yml`

for more details0.5.0 was the last supported release for SymPy 1.7

### Installing GAlgebra From PyPI (Recommended for users)

```
pip install galgebra
```

Then you are all set!

### Installing GAlgebra From Source (Recommended for developers)

To install from the latest source code of GAlgebra:

```
git clone https://github.com/pygae/galgebra.git
cd galgebra
pip install -e .
```

Note that the optional `-e`

argument is used here for a developer install so modifying the source will take effect immediately without the need of reinstallation.

Now you may run tests to verify the installation, run from the root of the repository:

```
pip install pytest
pytest test
```

Further, to run the complete test suite including the ones using nbval, just run:

```
pip install nbval
pytest --nbval examples/ipython/ --nbval examples/primer/ test --nbval-current-env --nbval-sanitize-with test/.nbval_sanitize.cfg
```

This could take more than 10 minutes, please be patient.

## Migration Guide

Note: The APIs have changed since the era of

`sympy.galgebra`

and`brombo/galgebra`

, some properties and methods are deprecated, the supported versions of Python and SymPy have also changed, please check Changelog and further update your scripts accordingly besides the following. If you encounter any problems, feel free to open an issue!

### Migrating guide for readers of LAGA&VAGC

Readers of Linear and Geometric Algebra and Vector and Geometric Calculus might be guided by GAlgebra Primer (version November 29, 2022, accessed May, 2024) to download GAfiles.zip and copy `gprinter.py`

, `lt.py`

, `mv.py`

, and ``GAlgebraInit.py``¸ into where GAlgebra is installed. These steps are NO LONGER NEEDED since GAlgebra 0.6.0 as they are merge into GAlgebra with tests, copying these files will cause conflicts and regressions of fixed bugs.

For minor differences to those files, please check out the change log for GAlgebra 0.6.0. Also please note that:

`GAlgebraInit.py`

is renamed to`primer.py`

and can be imported like`from galgebra.primer import *`

but it’s usage is discouraged, although it saves some boilerplate code, this is not part of GAlgebra’s maintained API, GAlgebra might remove it in future.Some notebooks from the zip is included in GAlgebra in

`examples/primer`

.

### Migrating from sympy.galgebra

GAlgebra is no longer part of SymPy since 1.0.0, if you have an import like this in your source:

```
from sympy.galgebra.ga import *
```

Simply remove the `sympy.`

prefix before `galgebra`

then you are good to go:

```
from galgebra.ga import *
```

### Migrating from brombo/galgebra

The `setgapth.py`

way to install is now deprecated by `pip install galgebra`

and all modules in GAlgebra should be imported from `galgebra`

, for example:

```
from galgebra.printer import Format, Eprint, latex, GaPrinter
from galgebra.ga import Ga
from galgebra.mv import Mv, Nga
```

## Bundled Resources

Note that in the doc/books directory there are:

`BookGA.pdf`

which is a collection of notes on Geometric Algebra and Calculus based of “Geometric Algebra for Physicists” by Doran and Lasenby and on some papers by Lasenby and Hestenes.`galgebra.pdf`

which is the original main doc of GAlgebra in PDF format, while the math part is still valid, the part describing the installation and usage of GAlgebra is outdated, please read with caution or visit https://galgebra.readthedocs.io/ instead.`Macdonald`

which contains bundled supplementary materials for Linear and Geometric Algebra and Vector and Geometric Calculus by Alan Macdonald, see here and here for more information.Particularly,

`GAlgebraPrimer.pdf`

is an archived version of GAlgebra Primer by Alan Macdonald, last updated on November 29, 2022.

## Star History

## Contributors

Made with contrib.rocks.

## Citing This Library

For citation information, see our ``CITATION.md` file <https://github.com/pygae/galgebra/blob/master/CITATION.md>`_.