galgebra.ga¶
Geometric Algebra (inherits Metric)
Members¶

class
galgebra.ga.
lazy_dict
(d, f_value)[source]¶ A dictionary that creates missing entries on the fly.
When the dictionary is indexed and the key used is not one of the existing keys,
self.f_value(key)
is called to evaluate the key. The result is then added to the dictionary so thatself.f_value
is not used to evaluate the same key again. Parameters
d – Arguments to pass on to the
dict
constructor, typically a regular dictionaryf_value (function) – The function to call to generate a value for a given key

clear
() → None. Remove all items from D.¶

copy
() → a shallow copy of D¶

fromkeys
()¶ Create a new dictionary with keys from iterable and values set to value.

get
()¶ Return the value for key if key is in the dictionary, else default.

items
() → a setlike object providing a view on D’s items¶

keys
() → a setlike object providing a view on D’s keys¶

pop
(k[, d]) → v, remove specified key and return the corresponding value.¶ If key is not found, d is returned if given, otherwise KeyError is raised

popitem
() → (k, v), remove and return some (key, value) pair as a¶ 2tuple; but raise KeyError if D is empty.

setdefault
()¶ Insert key with a value of default if key is not in the dictionary.
Return the value for key if key is in the dictionary, else default.

update
([E, ]**F) → None. Update D from dict/iterable E and F.¶ If E is present and has a .keys() method, then does: for k in E: D[k] = E[k] If E is present and lacks a .keys() method, then does: for k, v in E: D[k] = v In either case, this is followed by: for k in F: D[k] = F[k]

values
() → an object providing a view on D’s values¶

galgebra.ga.
update_and_substitute
(expr1, expr2, mul_dict)[source]¶ Linear expand expr1 and expr2 to get (summation convention):
expr1 = coefs1[i] * bases1[i] expr2 = coefs2[j] * bases2[j]
where
coefs1
andcoefs2
are lists of are commutative expressions andbases1
andbases2
are lists of bases for the geometric algebra.Then evaluate:
expr = coefs1[i] * coefs2[j] * mul_dict[bases1[i], bases2[j]]
where
mul_dict[bases1[i], bases2[j]]
contains the appropriate product ofbases1[i]*bases2[j]
as a linear combination of scalars and bases of the geometric algebra.

galgebra.ga.
nc_subs
(expr, base_keys, base_values=None)[source]¶ See if expr contains nc (noncommutative) keys in base_keys and substitute corresponding value in base_values for nc key. This was written since standard sympy subs was very slow in performing this operation for noncommutative keys for long lists of keys.

class
galgebra.ga.
GradedTuple
[source]¶ A nested tuple grouped by grade.
self[i]
refers to a the elements associated with gradei
.
flat
¶  Type
Tuple[T]
The elements flattened out in order of grade.

count
()¶ Return number of occurrences of value.

index
()¶ Return first index of value.
Raises ValueError if the value is not present.


class
galgebra.ga.
OrderedBiMap
(items)[source]¶ A dict with an
.inverse
attribute mapping in the other direction
clear
() → None. Remove all items from od.¶

copy
() → a shallow copy of od¶

fromkeys
()¶ Create a new ordered dictionary with keys from iterable and values set to value.

get
()¶ Return the value for key if key is in the dictionary, else default.

items
() → a setlike object providing a view on D’s items¶

keys
() → a setlike object providing a view on D’s keys¶

move_to_end
()¶ Move an existing element to the end (or beginning if last is false).
Raise KeyError if the element does not exist.

pop
(k[, d]) → v, remove specified key and return the corresponding¶ value. If key is not found, d is returned if given, otherwise KeyError is raised.

popitem
()¶ Remove and return a (key, value) pair from the dictionary.
Pairs are returned in LIFO order if last is true or FIFO order if false.

setdefault
()¶ Insert key with a value of default if key is not in the dictionary.
Return the value for key if key is in the dictionary, else default.

update
([E, ]**F) → None. Update D from dict/iterable E and F.¶ If E is present and has a .keys() method, then does: for k in E: D[k] = E[k] If E is present and lacks a .keys() method, then does: for k, v in E: D[k] = v In either case, this is followed by: for k in F: D[k] = F[k]

values
() → an object providing a view on D’s values¶


class
galgebra.ga.
BladeProductFunction
(ga)[source]¶ Base class for implementations of products between blade representations

__call__
(A: sympy.core.expr.Expr, B: sympy.core.expr.Expr) → sympy.core.expr.Expr[source]¶ Perform the multiplication

of_basis_blades
(blade1: sympy.core.symbol.Symbol, blade2: sympy.core.symbol.Symbol) → sympy.core.expr.Expr[source]¶ Compute the product of two basis blades

table_dict
: galgebra.ga.lazy_dict[Tuple[sympy.core.symbol.Symbol, sympy.core.symbol.Symbol], sympy.core.expr.Expr]¶ A cache of the result of
of_basis_blades()


class
galgebra.ga.
BaseProductFunction
(ga)[source]¶ Base class for implementations of products between base blade representations

of_basis_bases
(base1: sympy.core.symbol.Symbol, base2: sympy.core.symbol.Symbol) → sympy.core.expr.Expr[source]¶ Compute the product of two basis bases


class
galgebra.ga.
Ga
(bases, *, wedge=True, **kwargs)[source]¶ The vector space (basis, metric, derivatives of basis vectors) is defined by the base class
Metric
.The instanciating the class
Ga
constructs the geometric algebra of the vector space defined by the metric.The construction includes the multivector bases, multiplication tables or functions for the geometric (
*
), inner (
), outer (^
) products, plus the left (<
) and right (>
) contractions. The geometric derivative operator and any required connections for the derivative are also calculated.Except for the geometric product in the case of a nonorthogonal set of basis vectors all products and connections (if needed) are calculated when needed and place in dictionaries (lists of tuples) to be used when needed. This greatly speeds up evaluations of multivector expressions over previous versions of this code since the products of multivector bases and connection are not calculated unless they are actually needed in the current calculation.
Only instantiate the
Ga
class via theMv
class or any use of enhanced printing (text or latex) will cause the bases and multiplication table entries to be incorrectly labeled .Inherited from Metric class
Inverse of g
True if connection is nonzero
Basis, basis bases, and basis blades data structures
Index tuples of basis blades
Bases (noncommutative sympy symbols) by grade.
Basis blades symbols by grade.
mv.Mv
instances corresponding toblades
.Linear combination of coordinates and basis vectors.
Bidirectional map from index tuples (
indices
) to basis blades (blades
)Bidirectional map from index tuples (
indices
) to basis bases (bases
)Multiplication data structures
The following properties contain implementations of the operators
*
,^
,
,<
, and>
:The geometric product, \(A B\)
The wedge product, \(A \wedge B\)
The hestenes dot product, \(A \bullet B\)
The left contraction, \(A \rfloor B\)
The right contraction, \(A \lfloor B\)
While behaving like functions, each of these also has a
BladeProductFunction.table_dict
attribute, which contains a lazy lookup table of the products of basis blades.For nonorthogonal algebras, there is one additional operation, this one mapping bases instead of blades. Unlike the others, the
table_dict
attribute is precomputed:The geometic product of objects in base form, \(A B\)
Reciprocal basis data structures
Reciprocal basis vectors \(e^{j}\) as linear combination of basis vector symbols.
Dictionary to represent reciprocal basis vectors as expansions in terms of basis vectors.
List of reciprocal basis vectors in terms of basis multivectors.
Derivative data structures

de
¶ Derivatives of basis functions. Two dimensional list. First entry is differentiating coordinate index. Second entry is basis vector index. Quantities are linear combinations of basis vector symbols.

grad
¶ Geometric derivative operator from left.
grad*F
returns multivector derivative,F*grad
returns differential operator.

rgrad
¶ Geometric derivative operator from right.
rgrad*F
returns differential operator,F*rgrad
returns multivector derivative.
Other members
 Parameters
bases – Passed as
basis
toMetric
.wedge – Use
^
symbol to print basis blades**kwargs – See
galgebra.metric.Metric
.

static
dual_mode
(mode='I+')[source]¶ Sets mode of multivector dual function for all geometric algebras in users program.
If Ga.dual_mode(mode) not called the default mode is
'I+'
.mode
return value
+I
I*self
I
I*self
I+
self*I
I
self*I
+Iinv
Iinv*self
Iinv
Iinv*self
Iinv+
self*Iinv
Iinv
self*Iinv

static
com
(A, B)[source]¶ Calculate commutator of multivectors \(A\) and \(B\). Returns \((ABBA)/2\).
Additionally, commutator and anticommutator operators are defined by
\[\begin{split}\begin{aligned} \texttt{A >> B} \equiv & {\displaystyle\frac{AB  BA}{2}} \\ \texttt{A << B} \equiv & {\displaystyle\frac{AB + BA}{2}}. \end{aligned}\end{split}\]

static
build
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Static method to instantiate geometric algebra and return geometric algebra, basis vectors, and grad operator as a tuple.

coord_vec
: sympy.core.expr.Expr¶ Linear combination of coordinates and basis vectors. For example in orthogonal 3D \(x*e_x+y*e_y+z*e_z\).

make_grad
(a: Union[galgebra.mv.Mv, Sequence[sympy.core.expr.Expr]], cmpflg: bool = False) → galgebra.mv.Dop[source]¶ Obtain a gradient operator with respect to the multivector a, \(\bm{\nabla}_a\).

mv
(root=None, *args, **kwargs) → Union[galgebra.mv.Mv, Tuple[galgebra.mv.Mv, …]][source]¶ Instanciate and return a multivector for this, ‘self’, geometric algebra.

mvr
(norm: bool = True) → Tuple[galgebra.mv.Mv, …][source]¶ Returns tumple of reciprocal basis vectors. If norm=True or basis vectors are orthogonal the reciprocal basis is normalized in the sense that
\[{i}\cdot e^{j} = \delta_{i}^{j}.\]If the basis is not orthogonal and norm=False then
\[e_{i}\cdot e^{j} = I^{2}\delta_{i}^{j}.\]

bases_dict
(prefix: str = None) → Dict[str, sympy.core.symbol.Symbol][source]¶ returns a dictionary mapping basis element names to their MultiVector instances, optionally for specific grades
if you are lazy, you might do this to populate your namespace with the variables of a given layout.
>>> locals().update(ga.bases())

pdop
(*args, **kwargs) → galgebra.dop.Pdop[source]¶ Shorthand to construct a
Pdop

dop
(*args, **kwargs) → galgebra.mv.Dop[source]¶ Shorthand to construct a
Dop
for this algebra

sdop
(*args, **kwargs) → galgebra.dop.Sdop[source]¶ Shorthand to construct a
Sdop

lt
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Instanciate and return a linear transformation for this, ‘self’, geometric algebra.

sm
(*args, **kwargs) → galgebra.ga.Sm[source]¶ Instanciate and return a submanifold for this geometric algebra. See
Sm
for instantiation inputs.

indexes
: galgebra.ga.GradedTuple[Tuple[int, ...]]¶ Index tuples of basis blades

blades
: galgebra.ga.GradedTuple[sympy.core.symbol.Symbol]¶ Basis blades symbols by grade.
The bases for the multivector (geometric) algebra are formed from all combinations of the bases of the vector space, including the empty combination which is the scalars.
Each base is represented as a noncommutative symbol of the form
\[e_{i_{1}}\wedge e_{i_{2}}\wedge ...\wedge e_{i_{r}}.\]where \(0 < i_{1} < i_{2} < ... < i_{r}\) and \(0 < r \le n\) the dimension of the vector space and \(0 < i_{j} \le n\). The total number of all symbols of this form is \(2^{n}\).
These are called the blade basis for the geometric algebra and any multivector can be represented by a linears combination of these blades. The number of basis vectors that are in the symbol for the blade is call the grade of the blade.
Representing the multivector as a linear combination of blades gives a blade decomposition of the multivector.
There is a linear mapping from
bases
to blades and blades to bases so that one can easily convert from one representation to another.

indexes_to_blades_dict
: galgebra.ga.OrderedBiMap[Tuple[int, ...], sympy.core.symbol.Symbol]¶ Bidirectional map from index tuples (
indices
) to basis blades (blades
)

bases
: galgebra.ga.GradedTuple[sympy.core.symbol.Symbol]¶ Bases (noncommutative sympy symbols) by grade.
If the basis vectors are not orthogonal a second set of symbols is required in addition to the
blades
, given by:\[e_{i_{1}}e_{i_{2}}...e_{i_{r}}\]where \(0 < i_{1} < i_{2} < ... < i_{r}\) and \(0 < r \le n\) the dimension of the vector space and \(0 < i_{j} \le n\). The total number of all symbols of this form is \(2^{n}\). Any multivector can be represented as a linear combination of these bases.
For the case of an orthogonal set of basis vectors the bases and blades are identical, and so this attribute raises
ValueError
.

indexes_to_bases_dict
: galgebra.ga.OrderedBiMap[Tuple[int, ...], sympy.core.symbol.Symbol]¶ Bidirectional map from index tuples (
indices
) to basis bases (bases
)

mv_basis
: Tuple[galgebra.mv.Mv, ...]¶ mv.Mv
instances corresponding tobasis
.

reduce_basis
(blst)[source]¶ Repetitively applies
reduce_basis_loop()
to blst product representation until normal form is realized for nonorthogonal basisIf the basis vectors are represented by the non commutative symbols \(e_1,...,e_n\) then a grade \(r\) base is the geometric product \(e_{i_1}e_{i_2}\cdots e_{i_r}\) where \(i_1<i_2<\ldots<i_r\) (normal form). Then in galgebra this base is represented by a single indexed noncommutative symbol with indexes \([i_1,i_2,\ldots,i_r]\). The total number of these bases in an ndimensional vector space is \(2^n\).
reduce_basis()
takes the geometric products of basis vectors that are not in normal form (out of order) and reduces them to a sum of bases that are in normal form (in order). It does this by recursively applying the geometric algebra formula\[e_ie_j = 2(e_i \cdot e_j)  e_je_i\]where the scalar product \(e_i \cdot e_j\) is obtained from the metric tensor of the vector space. This also allows one to calculate the geometric product of any two bases and grade of the geometric algebra, and form the multiplication table.

static
reduce_basis_loop
(g, blst)[source]¶ blst is a list of integers \([i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}]\) representing the geometric product of r basis vectors \(a_{{i_1}}\cdots a_{{i_r}}\).
reduce_basis_loop()
searches along the list \([i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}]\) untill it finds \(i_{j} = i_{j+1}\) and in this case contracts the list, or if \(i_{j} > i_{j+1}\) it revises the list (\(\sim i_{j}\) means remove \(i_{j}\) from the list)Case 1: If \(i_{j} = i_{j+1}\), return \(a_{i_{j}}^2\) and \([i_{1},\ldots,\sim i_{j},\sim i_{j+1},\ldots,i_{r}]\)
Case 2: If \(i_{j} > i_{j+1}\), return \(a_{i_{j}}.a_{i_{j+1}}\), \([i_{1},\ldots,\sim i_{j},\sim i_{j+1},\ldots,i_{r}]\), and \([i_{1},\ldots,i_{j+1},i_{j},\ldots,i_{r}]\)
This is an implementation of the formula
\[e_i e_j = 2(e_i \cdot e_j)  e_j e_i\]Where \(e_i\) and \(e_j\) are basis vectors.

static
blade_reduce
(lst: List[int]) → Tuple[int, Optional[List[int]]][source]¶ Reduce wedge product of basis vectors to normal order.
lst is a list of indicies of basis vectors. blade_reduce sorts the list and determines if the overall number of exchanges in the list is odd or even, returning sign changes (
sgn
) and sorted list. If any two indicies in list are equal (wedge product is zero)sgn = 0
andlst = None
are returned.

blade_expansion_dict
: OrderedDict[sympy.core.symbol.Symbol, sympy.core.expr.Expr]¶ dictionary expanding blade basis in terms of base basis

base_expansion_dict
: OrderedDict[sympy.core.symbol.Symbol, sympy.core.expr.Expr]¶ dictionary expanding base basis in terms of blade basis

basic_mul
: galgebra.ga.BaseProductFunction¶ The geometic product of objects in base form, \(A B\)

mul
: galgebra.ga.BladeProductFunction¶ The geometric product, \(A B\)

wedge
: galgebra.ga.BladeProductFunction¶ The wedge product, \(A \wedge B\)

hestenes_dot
: galgebra.ga.BladeProductFunction¶ The hestenes dot product, \(A \bullet B\)

scalar_product
: galgebra.ga.BladeProductFunction¶ The scalar product, \(A * B\)

left_contract
: galgebra.ga.BladeProductFunction¶ The left contraction, \(A \rfloor B\)

right_contract
: galgebra.ga.BladeProductFunction¶ The right contraction, \(A \lfloor B\)

dot
(A: sympy.core.expr.Expr, B: sympy.core.expr.Expr) → sympy.core.expr.Expr[source]¶ Inner product

,<
, or>
.The
dot_mode
attribute determines which of these is used.

grade_decomposition
(A: _MaybeMv) → Dict[int, _MaybeMv][source]¶ Returns dictionary with grades as keys of grades of A. For example if A is a rotor the dictionary keys would be 0 and 2. For a vector the single key would be 1. Note A can be input as a multivector or an multivector object (sympy expression). If A is a multivector the dictionary entries are multivectors. If A is a sympy expression (in this case a linear combination of noncommutative symbols) the dictionary entries are sympy expressions.

split_multivector
(A: _MaybeMv) → Tuple[Union[sympy.core.expr.Expr, int], Union[sympy.core.expr.Expr, int]][source]¶ Split multivector \(A\) into commutative part \(a\) and noncommutative part \(A'\) so that \(A = a+A'\)

remove_scalar_part
(A: _MaybeMv) → Union[sympy.core.expr.Expr, int][source]¶ Return noncommutative part (sympy object) of
A.obj
.

e_sq
: sympy.core.expr.Expr¶ If
self.gsym = True
then \(E_{n}^2\) is not evaluated, but is represented as \(E_{n}^2 = (1)^{n*(n1)/2}\operatorname{det}(g)\) where \(\operatorname{det}(g)\) the determinant of the metric tensor can be general scalar function of the coordinates.

r_basis
: List[sympy.core.expr.Expr]¶ Reciprocal basis vectors \(e^{j}\) as linear combination of basis vector symbols.
These satisfy
\[e^{j}\cdot e_{k} = \delta_{k}^{j}\]where \(\delta_{k}^{j}\) is the kronecker delta. We use the formula from Doran and Lasenby 4.94:
\[e^{j} = (1)^{j1}e_{1} \wedge ...e_{j1} \wedge e_{j+1} \wedge ... \wedge e_{n}*E_{n}^{1}\]where \(E_{n} = e_{1}\wedge ...\wedge e_{n}\).
For nonorthogonal basis \(e^{j}\) is not normalized and must be divided by \(E_{n}^2\) (
self.e_sq
) in any relevant calculations.

g_inv
: sympy.matrices.dense.MutableDenseMatrix¶ inverse of metric tensor, g^{ij}

r_basis_dict
: Dict[sympy.core.symbol.Symbol, sympy.core.expr.Expr]¶ Dictionary to represent reciprocal basis vectors as expansions in terms of basis vectors.
{reciprocal basis symbol: linear combination of basis symbols, ...}

r_basis_mv
: List[galgebra.mv.Mv]¶ List of reciprocal basis vectors in terms of basis multivectors.

er_blade
(er, blade, mode='*', left=True)[source]¶ Product (
*
,^
,
,<
,>
) of reciprocal basis vector ‘er’ and basis blade ‘blade’ needed for application of derivatives to multivectors. left is ‘True’ means ‘er’ is multiplying ‘blade’ on the left, ‘False’ is for ‘er’ multiplying ‘blade’ on the right. Symbolically for left geometric product:\[e^{j}*(e_{i_{1}}\wedge ...\wedge e_{i_{r}})\]

blade_derivation
(blade: sympy.core.symbol.Symbol, ib: Union[int, sympy.core.symbol.Symbol]) → sympy.core.expr.Expr[source]¶ Calculate derivatives of basis blade ‘blade’ using derivative of basis vectors calculated by metric. ‘ib’ is the index of the coordinate the derivation is with respect to or the coordinate symbol. These are requried for the calculation of the geometric derivatives in curvilinear coordinates or for more general manifolds.
‘blade_derivation’ caches the results in a dictionary,
self._dbases
, so that the derivation for a given blade and coordinate is never calculated more that once.Note that the return value is not a multivector, but linear combination of basis blade symbols.

pDiff
(A: galgebra.mv.Mv, coord: Union[List, sympy.core.symbol.Symbol]) → galgebra.mv.Mv[source]¶ Compute partial derivative of multivector function ‘A’ with respect to coordinate ‘coord’.

grad_sqr
(A, grad_sqr_mode, mode, left)[source]¶ Calculate \((grad *_{1} grad) *_{2} A\) or \(A *_{2} (grad *_{1} grad)\) where
grad_sqr_mode
= \(*_{1}\) =*
,^
, or
andmode
= \(*_{2}\) =*
,^
, or
.

connection
(rbase, key_base, mode, left)[source]¶ Compute required multivector connections of the form (Einstein summation convention) \(e^{j}*(D_{j}e_{i_{1}...i_{r}})\) and \((D_{j}e_{i_{1}...i_{r}})*e^{j}\) where \(*\) could be
*
,^
,
,<
, or>
depending upon the mode, and \(e^{j}\) are reciprocal basis vectors.

ReciprocalFrame
(basis: Sequence[galgebra.mv.Mv], mode: str = 'norm') → Tuple[galgebra.mv.Mv, …][source]¶ Compute the reciprocal frame \(v^i\) of a set of vectors \(v_i\).
 Parameters
basis – The sequence of vectors \(v_i\) defining the input frame.
mode –
"norm"
– indicates that the reciprocal vectors should be normalized such that their product with the input vectors is 1, \(v^i \cdot v_j = \delta_{ij}\)."append"
– indicates that instead of normalizing, the normalization coefficient \(E^2\) should be appended to the returned tuple. One can divide by this coefficient to normalize the vectors. The returned vectors are such that \(v^i \cdot v_j = E^2\delta_{ij}\).
Deprecated since version 0.5.0: Arbitrary strings are interpreted as
"append"
, but in future will be an error

Christoffel_symbols
(mode=1)¶ mode = 1 Christoffel symbols of the first kind mode = 2 Christoffel symbols of the second kind

connect_flg
: bool¶ True if connection is nonzero

detg
: sympy.core.expr.Expr¶ Determinant of \(g\), \(\det g\)

static
dot_orthogonal
(V1, V2, g=None)¶ Returns the dot product of two vectors in an orthogonal coordinate system. V1 and V2 are lists of sympy expressions. g is a list of constants that gives the signature of the vector space to allow for noneuclidian vector spaces.
This function is only used to form the dot product of vectors in the embedding space of a vector manifold or in the case where the basis vectors are explicitly defined by vector fields in the embedding space.
A g of None is for a Euclidian embedding space.

g_adj
: sympy.matrices.dense.MutableDenseMatrix¶ Adjugate of g

metric_symbols_list
(s=None)¶ rows of metric tensor are separated by “,” and elements of each row separated by ” “. If the input is a single row it is assummed that the metric tensor is diagonal.
Output is a square matrix.


class
galgebra.ga.
Sm
(_Sm__u, _Sm__coords, *, ga, norm=False, name=None, root='e', debug=False)[source]¶ Submanifold is a geometric algebra defined on a submanifold of a base geometric algebra defined on a manifold. The submanifold is defined by a mapping from the coordinates of the base manifold to the coordinates of the submanifold. The inputs required to define the submanifold are:
Notes
The ‘Ga’ member function ‘sm’ can be used to instantiate the submanifold via (o3d is the base manifold):
coords = u, v = symbols('u, v', real=True) sm_example = o3d.sm([sin(u)*cos(v), sin(u)*sin(v), cos(u)], coords) eu, ev = sm_example.mv() sm_grad = sm_example.grad
 Parameters
u –
The coordinate map defining the submanifold which is a list of functions of coordinates of the base manifold in terms of the coordinates of the submanifold. for example if the manifold is a unit sphere then 
u = [sin(u)*cos(v), sin(u)*sin(v), cos(u)]
.Alternatively, a parametric vector function of the basis vectors of the base manifold. The coefficients of the bases are functions of the coordinates (
coords
). In this case we would call the submanifold a “vector” manifold and additional characteristics of the manifold can be calculated since we have given an explicit embedding of the manifold in the base manifold.coords – The coordinate list for the submanifold, for example
[u, v]
.debug – True for debug output
root (str) – Root symbol for basis vectors
name (str) – Name of submanifold
norm (bool) – Normalize basis if True
ga – Base Geometric Algebra

Christoffel_symbols
(mode=1)¶ mode = 1 Christoffel symbols of the first kind mode = 2 Christoffel symbols of the second kind

ReciprocalFrame
(basis: Sequence[galgebra.mv.Mv], mode: str = 'norm') → Tuple[galgebra.mv.Mv, …]¶ Compute the reciprocal frame \(v^i\) of a set of vectors \(v_i\).
 Parameters
basis – The sequence of vectors \(v_i\) defining the input frame.
mode –
"norm"
– indicates that the reciprocal vectors should be normalized such that their product with the input vectors is 1, \(v^i \cdot v_j = \delta_{ij}\)."append"
– indicates that instead of normalizing, the normalization coefficient \(E^2\) should be appended to the returned tuple. One can divide by this coefficient to normalize the vectors. The returned vectors are such that \(v^i \cdot v_j = E^2\delta_{ij}\).
Deprecated since version 0.5.0: Arbitrary strings are interpreted as
"append"
, but in future will be an error

base_expansion_dict
: OrderedDict[sympy.core.symbol.Symbol, sympy.core.expr.Expr]¶ dictionary expanding base basis in terms of blade basis

bases
: galgebra.ga.GradedTuple[sympy.core.symbol.Symbol]¶ Bases (noncommutative sympy symbols) by grade.
If the basis vectors are not orthogonal a second set of symbols is required in addition to the
blades
, given by:\[e_{i_{1}}e_{i_{2}}...e_{i_{r}}\]where \(0 < i_{1} < i_{2} < ... < i_{r}\) and \(0 < r \le n\) the dimension of the vector space and \(0 < i_{j} \le n\). The total number of all symbols of this form is \(2^{n}\). Any multivector can be represented as a linear combination of these bases.
For the case of an orthogonal set of basis vectors the bases and blades are identical, and so this attribute raises
ValueError
.

bases_dict
(prefix: str = None) → Dict[str, sympy.core.symbol.Symbol]¶ returns a dictionary mapping basis element names to their MultiVector instances, optionally for specific grades
if you are lazy, you might do this to populate your namespace with the variables of a given layout.
>>> locals().update(ga.bases())

basic_mul
: galgebra.ga.BaseProductFunction¶ The geometic product of objects in base form, \(A B\)

blade_derivation
(blade: sympy.core.symbol.Symbol, ib: Union[int, sympy.core.symbol.Symbol]) → sympy.core.expr.Expr¶ Calculate derivatives of basis blade ‘blade’ using derivative of basis vectors calculated by metric. ‘ib’ is the index of the coordinate the derivation is with respect to or the coordinate symbol. These are requried for the calculation of the geometric derivatives in curvilinear coordinates or for more general manifolds.
‘blade_derivation’ caches the results in a dictionary,
self._dbases
, so that the derivation for a given blade and coordinate is never calculated more that once.Note that the return value is not a multivector, but linear combination of basis blade symbols.

blade_expansion_dict
: OrderedDict[sympy.core.symbol.Symbol, sympy.core.expr.Expr]¶ dictionary expanding blade basis in terms of base basis

static
blade_reduce
(lst: List[int]) → Tuple[int, Optional[List[int]]]¶ Reduce wedge product of basis vectors to normal order.
lst is a list of indicies of basis vectors. blade_reduce sorts the list and determines if the overall number of exchanges in the list is odd or even, returning sign changes (
sgn
) and sorted list. If any two indicies in list are equal (wedge product is zero)sgn = 0
andlst = None
are returned.

blades
: galgebra.ga.GradedTuple[sympy.core.symbol.Symbol]¶ Basis blades symbols by grade.
The bases for the multivector (geometric) algebra are formed from all combinations of the bases of the vector space, including the empty combination which is the scalars.
Each base is represented as a noncommutative symbol of the form
\[e_{i_{1}}\wedge e_{i_{2}}\wedge ...\wedge e_{i_{r}}.\]where \(0 < i_{1} < i_{2} < ... < i_{r}\) and \(0 < r \le n\) the dimension of the vector space and \(0 < i_{j} \le n\). The total number of all symbols of this form is \(2^{n}\).
These are called the blade basis for the geometric algebra and any multivector can be represented by a linears combination of these blades. The number of basis vectors that are in the symbol for the blade is call the grade of the blade.
Representing the multivector as a linear combination of blades gives a blade decomposition of the multivector.
There is a linear mapping from
bases
to blades and blades to bases so that one can easily convert from one representation to another.

static
build
(*args, **kwargs)¶ Static method to instantiate geometric algebra and return geometric algebra, basis vectors, and grad operator as a tuple.

static
com
(A, B)¶ Calculate commutator of multivectors \(A\) and \(B\). Returns \((ABBA)/2\).
Additionally, commutator and anticommutator operators are defined by
\[\begin{split}\begin{aligned} \texttt{A >> B} \equiv & {\displaystyle\frac{AB  BA}{2}} \\ \texttt{A << B} \equiv & {\displaystyle\frac{AB + BA}{2}}. \end{aligned}\end{split}\]

connect_flg
: bool¶ True if connection is nonzero

connection
(rbase, key_base, mode, left)¶ Compute required multivector connections of the form (Einstein summation convention) \(e^{j}*(D_{j}e_{i_{1}...i_{r}})\) and \((D_{j}e_{i_{1}...i_{r}})*e^{j}\) where \(*\) could be
*
,^
,
,<
, or>
depending upon the mode, and \(e^{j}\) are reciprocal basis vectors.

coord_vec
: sympy.core.expr.Expr¶ Linear combination of coordinates and basis vectors. For example in orthogonal 3D \(x*e_x+y*e_y+z*e_z\).

detg
: sympy.core.expr.Expr¶ Determinant of \(g\), \(\det g\)

dop
(*args, **kwargs) → galgebra.mv.Dop¶ Shorthand to construct a
Dop
for this algebra

dot
(A: sympy.core.expr.Expr, B: sympy.core.expr.Expr) → sympy.core.expr.Expr¶ Inner product

,<
, or>
.The
dot_mode
attribute determines which of these is used.

static
dot_orthogonal
(V1, V2, g=None)¶ Returns the dot product of two vectors in an orthogonal coordinate system. V1 and V2 are lists of sympy expressions. g is a list of constants that gives the signature of the vector space to allow for noneuclidian vector spaces.
This function is only used to form the dot product of vectors in the embedding space of a vector manifold or in the case where the basis vectors are explicitly defined by vector fields in the embedding space.
A g of None is for a Euclidian embedding space.

static
dual_mode
(mode='I+')¶ Sets mode of multivector dual function for all geometric algebras in users program.
If Ga.dual_mode(mode) not called the default mode is
'I+'
.mode
return value
+I
I*self
I
I*self
I+
self*I
I
self*I
+Iinv
Iinv*self
Iinv
Iinv*self
Iinv+
self*Iinv
Iinv
self*Iinv

e_sq
: sympy.core.expr.Expr¶ If
self.gsym = True
then \(E_{n}^2\) is not evaluated, but is represented as \(E_{n}^2 = (1)^{n*(n1)/2}\operatorname{det}(g)\) where \(\operatorname{det}(g)\) the determinant of the metric tensor can be general scalar function of the coordinates.

er_blade
(er, blade, mode='*', left=True)¶ Product (
*
,^
,
,<
,>
) of reciprocal basis vector ‘er’ and basis blade ‘blade’ needed for application of derivatives to multivectors. left is ‘True’ means ‘er’ is multiplying ‘blade’ on the left, ‘False’ is for ‘er’ multiplying ‘blade’ on the right. Symbolically for left geometric product:\[e^{j}*(e_{i_{1}}\wedge ...\wedge e_{i_{r}})\]

g_adj
: sympy.matrices.dense.MutableDenseMatrix¶ Adjugate of g

g_inv
: sympy.matrices.dense.MutableDenseMatrix¶ inverse of metric tensor, g^{ij}

grad_sqr
(A, grad_sqr_mode, mode, left)¶ Calculate \((grad *_{1} grad) *_{2} A\) or \(A *_{2} (grad *_{1} grad)\) where
grad_sqr_mode
= \(*_{1}\) =*
,^
, or
andmode
= \(*_{2}\) =*
,^
, or
.

grade_decomposition
(A: _MaybeMv) → Dict[int, _MaybeMv]¶ Returns dictionary with grades as keys of grades of A. For example if A is a rotor the dictionary keys would be 0 and 2. For a vector the single key would be 1. Note A can be input as a multivector or an multivector object (sympy expression). If A is a multivector the dictionary entries are multivectors. If A is a sympy expression (in this case a linear combination of noncommutative symbols) the dictionary entries are sympy expressions.

hestenes_dot
: galgebra.ga.BladeProductFunction¶ The hestenes dot product, \(A \bullet B\)

indexes
: galgebra.ga.GradedTuple[Tuple[int, ...]]¶ Index tuples of basis blades

indexes_to_bases_dict
: galgebra.ga.OrderedBiMap[Tuple[int, ...], sympy.core.symbol.Symbol]¶ Bidirectional map from index tuples (
indices
) to basis bases (bases
)

indexes_to_blades_dict
: galgebra.ga.OrderedBiMap[Tuple[int, ...], sympy.core.symbol.Symbol]¶ Bidirectional map from index tuples (
indices
) to basis blades (blades
)

left_contract
: galgebra.ga.BladeProductFunction¶ The left contraction, \(A \rfloor B\)

lt
(*args, **kwargs)¶ Instanciate and return a linear transformation for this, ‘self’, geometric algebra.

make_grad
(a: Union[galgebra.mv.Mv, Sequence[sympy.core.expr.Expr]], cmpflg: bool = False) → galgebra.mv.Dop¶ Obtain a gradient operator with respect to the multivector a, \(\bm{\nabla}_a\).

metric_symbols_list
(s=None)¶ rows of metric tensor are separated by “,” and elements of each row separated by ” “. If the input is a single row it is assummed that the metric tensor is diagonal.
Output is a square matrix.

mul
: galgebra.ga.BladeProductFunction¶ The geometric product, \(A B\)

mv
(root=None, *args, **kwargs) → Union[galgebra.mv.Mv, Tuple[galgebra.mv.Mv, …]]¶ Instanciate and return a multivector for this, ‘self’, geometric algebra.

mv_basis
: Tuple[galgebra.mv.Mv, ...]¶ mv.Mv
instances corresponding tobasis
.

mvr
(norm: bool = True) → Tuple[galgebra.mv.Mv, …]¶ Returns tumple of reciprocal basis vectors. If norm=True or basis vectors are orthogonal the reciprocal basis is normalized in the sense that
\[{i}\cdot e^{j} = \delta_{i}^{j}.\]If the basis is not orthogonal and norm=False then
\[e_{i}\cdot e^{j} = I^{2}\delta_{i}^{j}.\]

pDiff
(A: galgebra.mv.Mv, coord: Union[List, sympy.core.symbol.Symbol]) → galgebra.mv.Mv¶ Compute partial derivative of multivector function ‘A’ with respect to coordinate ‘coord’.

pdop
(*args, **kwargs) → galgebra.dop.Pdop¶ Shorthand to construct a
Pdop

r_basis
: List[sympy.core.expr.Expr]¶ Reciprocal basis vectors \(e^{j}\) as linear combination of basis vector symbols.
These satisfy
\[e^{j}\cdot e_{k} = \delta_{k}^{j}\]where \(\delta_{k}^{j}\) is the kronecker delta. We use the formula from Doran and Lasenby 4.94:
\[e^{j} = (1)^{j1}e_{1} \wedge ...e_{j1} \wedge e_{j+1} \wedge ... \wedge e_{n}*E_{n}^{1}\]where \(E_{n} = e_{1}\wedge ...\wedge e_{n}\).
For nonorthogonal basis \(e^{j}\) is not normalized and must be divided by \(E_{n}^2\) (
self.e_sq
) in any relevant calculations.

r_basis_dict
: Dict[sympy.core.symbol.Symbol, sympy.core.expr.Expr]¶ Dictionary to represent reciprocal basis vectors as expansions in terms of basis vectors.
{reciprocal basis symbol: linear combination of basis symbols, ...}

r_basis_mv
: List[galgebra.mv.Mv]¶ List of reciprocal basis vectors in terms of basis multivectors.

reduce_basis
(blst)¶ Repetitively applies
reduce_basis_loop()
to blst product representation until normal form is realized for nonorthogonal basisIf the basis vectors are represented by the non commutative symbols \(e_1,...,e_n\) then a grade \(r\) base is the geometric product \(e_{i_1}e_{i_2}\cdots e_{i_r}\) where \(i_1<i_2<\ldots<i_r\) (normal form). Then in galgebra this base is represented by a single indexed noncommutative symbol with indexes \([i_1,i_2,\ldots,i_r]\). The total number of these bases in an ndimensional vector space is \(2^n\).
reduce_basis()
takes the geometric products of basis vectors that are not in normal form (out of order) and reduces them to a sum of bases that are in normal form (in order). It does this by recursively applying the geometric algebra formula\[e_ie_j = 2(e_i \cdot e_j)  e_je_i\]where the scalar product \(e_i \cdot e_j\) is obtained from the metric tensor of the vector space. This also allows one to calculate the geometric product of any two bases and grade of the geometric algebra, and form the multiplication table.

static
reduce_basis_loop
(g, blst)¶ blst is a list of integers \([i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}]\) representing the geometric product of r basis vectors \(a_{{i_1}}\cdots a_{{i_r}}\).
reduce_basis_loop()
searches along the list \([i_{1},\ldots,i_{r}]\) untill it finds \(i_{j} = i_{j+1}\) and in this case contracts the list, or if \(i_{j} > i_{j+1}\) it revises the list (\(\sim i_{j}\) means remove \(i_{j}\) from the list)Case 1: If \(i_{j} = i_{j+1}\), return \(a_{i_{j}}^2\) and \([i_{1},\ldots,\sim i_{j},\sim i_{j+1},\ldots,i_{r}]\)
Case 2: If \(i_{j} > i_{j+1}\), return \(a_{i_{j}}.a_{i_{j+1}}\), \([i_{1},\ldots,\sim i_{j},\sim i_{j+1},\ldots,i_{r}]\), and \([i_{1},\ldots,i_{j+1},i_{j},\ldots,i_{r}]\)
This is an implementation of the formula
\[e_i e_j = 2(e_i \cdot e_j)  e_j e_i\]Where \(e_i\) and \(e_j\) are basis vectors.

remove_scalar_part
(A: _MaybeMv) → Union[sympy.core.expr.Expr, int]¶ Return noncommutative part (sympy object) of
A.obj
.

right_contract
: galgebra.ga.BladeProductFunction¶ The right contraction, \(A \lfloor B\)

scalar_product
: galgebra.ga.BladeProductFunction¶ The scalar product, \(A * B\)

sdop
(*args, **kwargs) → galgebra.dop.Sdop¶ Shorthand to construct a
Sdop

sm
(*args, **kwargs) → galgebra.ga.Sm¶ Instanciate and return a submanifold for this geometric algebra. See
Sm
for instantiation inputs.

split_multivector
(A: _MaybeMv) → Tuple[Union[sympy.core.expr.Expr, int], Union[sympy.core.expr.Expr, int]]¶ Split multivector \(A\) into commutative part \(a\) and noncommutative part \(A'\) so that \(A = a+A'\)

wedge
: galgebra.ga.BladeProductFunction¶ The wedge product, \(A \wedge B\)